Utilization of wind energy is the most developed renewable energy today. Worldwide installed capacity until the end of 2010 amounted to 194,390 gigawatt (GW), by order of the state’s largest users of China, the United States (USA), Germany, Spain and India. While in Indonesia only reached about 1.8 Megawatts (MW). Then how the opportunities and challenges that wind energy development in Indonesia? Development opportunities of wind power plant in Indonesia is supported by the potential for wind energy in some parts of Indonesia, the unfulfilled energy demands, particularly in the area of the islands and remote locations as well as the potential of wind, the global demand to reduce energy use that produces pollutants, decreasing fuel reserve require substitution of fossil energy from other energy sources (EBT) has issued final regulations that support the development of various renewable energy.
However, wind energy development is driven by the challenges that have to go through them yet available wind potential maps and a comprehensive wind data, wind energy potential sites are generally located in areas with poor and low energy requirements as well as isolated. Other factors, yet there are no private parties who invest in the construction of wind power plant, there is no incentive mechanism for renewable energy users and industrial development-oriented use of particular wind power plant, wind power plant investment is relatively high in comparison with conventional power plant investment, yet there is adequate institutional and there has been no uniformity of policy among the departments for the implementation of the management wind power plant and still less education and socialization to the community regarding wind power plant applications.
Map of potential wind
One program that must be done before developing wind power plant is the mapping of wind energy potential in Indonesia. Until now, Indonesia has not had a comprehensive map, because the development would cost billions of dollars.
Wind energy potential in Indonesia is generally speed of more than 5 meters per second (m / sec). Results of mapping Institute of Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan) in 120 locations shows, some areas have wind speeds above 5 m / sec, respectively Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi, and South Coast of Java.
The average wind speeds in Indonesia range between 1.3 to 6.3 m/s.61 The main wind energy potential areas are located in East and West Nusa Tenggara (eastern and western portion of the Lesser Sunda islands, central south and eastern south of Indonesia) which have average wind speeds of more than 5m/s. Theapproximate wind power potential in Indonesia is estimated at around 9500 MW. However, Indonesia is lagging behind its potential, with an installed capacity of around 1.2MW. Wind energy potential inIndonesia could be classified into three categories, namely:
- small-scale utilization, with wind speed of 2.5–4 m/s and capacity up to 10kW;
- medium-scale utilization, with wind speed of 4–5m/s and capacity of 10–100kW;
- large-scale utilization, with wind speed and capacity higher than 5m/s and 100kW, respectively
Recorded and measured wind data are as follow:
- Region of Nusa Tenggara Barat: windspeed ranging from 3.4–5.3m/s (10 locations);
- Region of NusaTenggara Timur :wind speed ranging from 3.2–6.5m/s (10 locations);
- Region of Sulawesi and other:wind speed ranging from 2.6–4.9m/s( 10 locations).
Wind Speed in Indonesia
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